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Presbyopia is age-related farsightedness that occurs in the body against the background of aging processes. To date, a similar diagnosis is made to every 10 patients of ophthalmological clinics. Thanks to modern approaches to eye treatment at the Eximer clinic, today you can get rid of presbyopia effectively, painlessly in a few hours.

Presbyopia (age-related farsightedness)

So what is presbyopia? The International Classification of Diseases writes that presbyopia of the eye is a violation of refraction and accommodation, caused by gradual age-related changes and leading to a decrease in the accommodative ability of the eyes, which is manifested by reduced visual acuity at close range.

With presbyopia in both eyes, a person cannot see an object that is at close range, which reduces his performance, causes physical and psychological discomfort.

It is believed that senile presbyopia ou (oi) develops in patients after 45-50 years, but in recent years the age indicator has decreased significantly. The diagnosis is made to patients after 40, and all people over 35 are at risk.

For the treatment of presbyopia in the Eximer clinic, the world’s leading technologies are used – PresbyLASIK and Presby FemtoLASIK, which allow you to get rid of presbyopia without replacing the lens. In Ukraine, these unique techniques are used only in the Eximer center.

Age-related farsightedness: causes

Farsightedness develops with age due to a decrease in the accommodative ability of the eyes, and is considered a natural process.

The accommodation of the eye is its ability to focus on objects that are at different distances from it by changing the refractive power. The process is considered natural and reflex. The visual perception of objects at near and far distances is the result of the joint work of the eye muscles and the lens. But when considering the nearest objects, the tension of accommodation is maximum.

The amplitude of accommodation is the difference between maximum tension and accommodation at rest, measured in diopters. On average, with normal visual acuity, a person spends 2.5 diopters to see an object at a distance of 40 cm. But with age, the amplitude decreases due to physiological changes in the eye, so the point of clear vision becomes further – moves away to a distance of up to 1 m and more. This is how presbyopia ou (oi) develops.

The exact mechanism of development of this pathology has not yet been described, but world ophthalmology comes to the conclusion that the main reason for the decrease in the amplitude of accommodation and the development of senile farsightedness is the processes in the lens of the eye, as well as changes in the activity of the ciliary muscle.

With age, the lens, the main element responsible for accommodation, loses its elasticity, its tissues become denser, which makes it difficult to focus at a close distance. Also, the muscles that support the variability of the lens gradually lose their tone. These two factors influence the development of presbyopia.

At-risk groups

Physiological changes in the lens can be accelerated by external and internal factors. If hyperopia develops rapidly in adults, the reasons must be sought in the lifestyle and characteristics of the body. There are such risk factors for the development of presbyopia:

  • congenital farsightedness;
  • congenital anomalies of the lens;
  • improper metabolism;
  • endocrine pathologies – diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease;
  • cardiopathology – atherosclerosis, hypertension;
  • hereditary properties of the lens to rapid loss of elasticity;
  • a profession associated with constant eye strain – a jeweler, laboratory assistant, surgeon and others;
  • regular use of monitors and smartphones at close range.

It is noted that presbyopia develops faster in women.

Complications of untreated presbyopia

Presbyopia is an eye disease that needs to be treated. In advanced cases, complications may develop:

  1. The process progresses, the lens thickens more, which leads to dystrophy of the ciliary muscles.
  2. Corneal astigmatism declares itself – a violation of the refraction of light due to the irregular sphericity of the cornea. If earlier it was compensated by normal accommodative ability, then with presbyopia it becomes noticeable, vision is “blurred”.
  3. Macular degeneration is an eye disease that affects the macula (the central part of the retina) and leads to permanent vision loss.

Therefore, presbyopia should be treated as soon as it is diagnosed.

Symptoms of presbyopia

Patients with severe hyperopia are the first to notice presbyopia. They have a sharp deterioration in the ability to see at close range. This is the main symptom of presbyopia: a person involuntarily begins to move small objects away in order to examine them. Other symptoms of presbyopia are:

  1. Decreased focus speed. A person can still see clearly up close, but he needs more time to focus his eyes. This is how early presbyopia begins to manifest itself.
  2. It is difficult to quickly adapt when switching your gaze from a distant object to a near one.
  3. Rapid eye fatigue when reading, working at a computer.
  4. Patients with myopia begin to see better.
  5. A person cannot see an object at a distance of up to 50 cm.
  6. The development of headaches with eye strain (reading, working at a computer). Presbyopia is characterized by headaches after 30 minutes or more spent in front of a monitor. Localization of pain – the back of the head, forehead, sometimes the patient describes it as “pain behind the eyes.” The pain sensation takes on a different shade – pressing, aching, and disappears after rest.
  7. Feeling of pain in the eyes when considering close objects, the patient feels “sand in the eyes”.
  8. With a parallel manifestation of astigmatism, the contours of objects may blur.

At the first symptoms of presbyopia, you need to consult a doctor at the clinic to select a correction method.

Diagnosis of presbyopia

To diagnose presbyopia of the eyes, a comprehensive examination is performed.

First, the doctor examines the patient and conducts a survey. Further examination for presbyopia determines the condition of the cornea, retina, lens and visual acuity.

In the ophthalmological center “Eximer” hardware methods of vision examination are used. If necessary, the doctor may offer the patient a check according to the Sivtsev table. The cornea is examined on a keratotopograph, an endothelial microscope to determine its parameters, and the anteroposterior axis of one eye is also determined.

In the diagnosis, drops that dilate the pupil can be used. They cause a decrease in accommodation, and the ophthalmologist determines if the patient has a latent form of farsightedness.

If presbyopia is a confirmed diagnosis, the doctor recommends treatment based on each individual case. The Eximer clinic in Ukraine practices the latest technique under the PresbyMAX® program. This is a laser correction of presbyopia with a minimum of contraindications.

Before the intervention, it is recommended to give up soft contact lenses for 4 days, and for 30 days – from hard ones. For a short period, multifocal contact lenses are selected to simulate the effect of correction.

Classification of presbyopia

Presbyopia, as such, is not considered a disease, but only one of the components of the aging process. Therefore, there is no official classification of this condition. When presbyopia is detected, the wording of the diagnosis sounds like “presbyopia OU”, that is, “age-related farsightedness in both eyes”. Also, the terms “presbyopia 1 degree” and “presbyopia 2 degree” are not officially recognized. But some authors of scientific papers, as well as practicing ophthalmologists, still use the division into stages, which is convenient for further selection of treatment.

Regarding this, the following stages of development can be distinguished:

  • initial presbyopia;
  • hidden;
  • explicit;
  • complete and other stages.

Presbyopia can be divided according to the amount of addition (a plus additive for vision correction, which is measured in diopters). Different spectacle and lens manufacturers use their own separation parameters, but on average it is possible to associate a positive addition with the age of the patient. Thus, we get the scale:

  • presbyopia with a weak degree of addition (LOW) is usually observed at the age of 40 to 45 years, plus addition for correction is +0.5-+1.25 D;
  • the average degree of addition (MED) is suitable for the age of 45-50 years and is +1.25- +2.25 D;
  • a high degree of addition (HIGH) is required for vision correction at the age of 50 years, is +2.25 D and above.

This division is highly arbitrary. Classification of the disease according to the ICD.

Presbyopia and hypermetropia (farsightedness)

Hypermetropia (farsightedness) of a weak degree is congenital or appears over time. Hyperopia is a refractive error in the eye where light rays converge at a focus behind the retina rather than on it. In children, farsightedness often appears between the ages of 5-12 years and is a change in physiological development. With age, it may disappear, but it can develop into stable farsightedness.

Hypermetropia is often compared with presbyopia, which is not entirely correct. Farsightedness and presbyopia are caused by different mechanisms. Presbyopia ou (oi) develops with age due to changes in the lens, and farsightedness, as such, is the result of various factors associated with the anatomical structure of the eyeball and cornea. Eye pathologies manifest themselves with the same symptom – a person sees poorly at close range.

If the patient has farsightedness, he already wears “near” glasses, then with age, the processes can overlap and presbyopia occurs against the background of hypermetropia. A person with farsightedness begins to see even worse near. He needs a careful selection of glasses or lenses, taking into account the addition.

Presbyopia with myopia

Myopia or nearsightedness is another refractive error in which a person cannot see distant objects. Age-related farsightedness with myopia “corrects” this condition, a person begins to see better. He notices that his usual glasses or lenses have become “stronger”, there is a feeling of “pressure on the eyes”. With a mild degree of myopia and with the initial development of presbyopia, a person can actually get good vision. But as mentioned above, this situation also requires treatment. It is a mistake to think that myopia disappears with the appearance of presbyopia, so complications can develop that even affect the retina and cornea – dangerous eye diseases.

Treatment methods

With modern medicine and the availability of the latest technology, we will learn how to treat presbyopia better. Many presbyopes do not immediately rush to the clinic for help, especially if their visual ability improves, but this can aggravate the situation. In the clinic “Eximer” the main progressive technologies are used for the treatment of presbyopia:

  • selection of special glasses;
  • use of multifocal contact lenses;
  • lens replacement;
  • laser vision correction for presbyopia.

The choice of treatment is individual in each case.

Age-related farsightedness: prevention

When presbyopia already occurs, prevention does not help much – it is almost impossible to slow down the process. Since age-related farsightedness is one of the manifestations of the natural aging of the body, the main prevention is to improve the state of health in general. What you can do for your eyes already in your youth:

  • walk in the fresh air to saturate the tissues with oxygen – it is necessary for the eyes;
  • eat polyunsaturated fatty acids – there are some studies confirming their ability to affect visual acuity;
  • do not spend more than 1 hour in front of the monitor in a row, take breaks up to 10 minutes or use protective glasses;
  • ask your ophthalmologist to pick up vitamin complexes for the eyes;
  • for dry eye syndrome, use moisturizing drops;
  • do exercises for the eyes, which trains their muscles;
  • consult your doctor about additional toning of the eye muscles with physiotherapy methods.

Remember that it is worth visiting an ophthalmologist once a year without fail, and if you notice the first symptoms of presbyopia or other visual disorders, see a doctor as soon as possible.

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